The Biscione and the Mystery of the Various Ottos–Sea Monsters, Templars, European Royalty & Scaligerian Chronology

When commenting upon the emblem of the boy being swallowed by a “dragon” that looks suspiciously to me like he’s actually emerging from a set of intestines, Hammer-Purgstall mentions the biscione of the Royal House of Milan:

[This is an excerpt from “Meet Mete,” my introduction to my recently-published English translation of Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall’s Mysterium Baphometis Revelatum.]

This, finally, is the same dragon who, at the time of the establishment of the Brotherhood of the Knights Templar, came out of Gnostic fabrications on the life of St. George, and with him, but without the infant, transferred into the British Shield. Also, it is certain that the Gnostic dragon absorbing the infant gave rise to the serpent of [the house of] Visconti, who up to the present can be seen in the seals of Milan.

Tab. IV, fig. 19-20. Does the knight represent Ottone? (See below)

This latter reference is about the biscione, the official device of the House of Visconti, a very influential royal family in Milan. It consists of a “Saracen” boy (naked, with red skin) being swallowed alive, feet, first, by a large serpent, much like many of the images on Hammer-Purgstall’s idols. The insignia is said to have been stolen, quite literally, as spoils of war from the Crusades in the year 1100. I will tell you the story, but I must warn you that it lacks sense because it contains several inconsistencies.

The biscione of Milan

Logo for Alfa-Romeo cars, featuring biscione and St. George’s cross

I first heard the story, or at least the details of it, just a couple of days ago, on a YouTube video, made by an Italian named Gian Luca Margheriti, which was published little over a month ago. It was called “The ‘biscione’ of Visconti and Sforza families of Milan in 90 seconds (or nearly so).” In it, the presenter states that:…[I]n 1100, during the Second Crusade, Ottone Visconti was leading seven thousand Milanese soldiers. During the siege on Jerusalem, Ottone was facing the cruel Saracen Voluce, who… fought under the symbol of a serpent devouring a man. [Voluce was defeated] and, following the custom of the epoch, Ottone took his arms and his emblems and brought them back to Milan. Since then he decided to make Voluce’s emblem the crest of his family, with one small change: the serpent, instead of devouring whatever man, would have a red Saracen in its mouth…. The symbol was then changed again, substituting the Saracen with a child, in order to suggest the innate kindness of the Visconti grass snake.”In addition to the absurdity of the last statement—for how is eating a child more “kind” then eating a grown man?—the main things that jump out are: 1) the year 1100 was at the end of the First Crusade, not the second, which didn’t start until 1147, 2) the siege of Jerusalem is recorded as happening the previous year, in 1099, and, 3) Ottone Visconti was not born until more than a century later in 1207. Yet every version of this story I found stated that it was Ottone Visconti who vanquished the Saracen, and that it took place in 1100 specifically. The closest thing I found to an admission of the inconsistency was a source that said it must have been a relative of his with the same name.

Ottone defeating Voluce


The story becomes even more convoluted when you consider Gian Luca Margheriti’s assertion that there is another possible origin of the Visconti device. He says that “Uberto Visconti,” one of Ottone’s ancestors, defeated a dragon named “Tarantasio” that was terrorizing the women and children of Milan.A long time ago, between Milan, Lodi and Bergano, there was a large lake called Gerundo. Today there is nothing left of that lake. It was reclaimed during the Middle Ages, together with other territories around Milan, to create new arable lands. According to legend, a giant dragon called Tarantasio lived in the Milanese part of this swampy marsh, more or less where today we can find the gardens dedicated to Indro Montanelli. Chroniclers told that whoever approached its den would get devoured. All those that were not eater by the dragon were roasted by its mephitic burning breath. The dragon in the end was defeated by Uberto Visconti, count of Angera.

Biscione in the midst of a hydra


This Uberto appears to be the progenitor of the royal line, and while his birth date is not recorded, his death is put by history at 1248, so we still don’t have a link to 1100. Further reading revealed that this creature was also called “Tartanus,” and that it is thought to be buried on the isle of Achilli. The biscione appears on the arms of Angera, as it does in Milan, to this day. Clearly, there is more to this story than is meant to be understood by the casual listener. The motto of the Visconti family is Viperas mores non violabo, which means “I will not violate the customs of the serpent.”

Ottone Visconti leads Milan’s surrender to Barbarossa, March 1, 1162


The biscione story has fittingly been compared with the image of the prophet Jonah, sometimes shown halfway through the act of being swallowed (or is he actually emerging)? He is also properly compared, then, with images of the Mesopotamian myth of Oannes, who is sometimes shown and emerging from the ocean to teach wisdom to his students. Also, Matsya, an incarnation of Vishnu, whose body is half-way out of the mouth of a fish. The name, of course, is undoubtedly connected to the same roots as the words Mete, Metis and Maat, discussed here. In full-fish form, Matsya is said to have rescued a king called Manu from a worldwide flood.

Various depictions of Matsya


This seems to be true with the biscione story as well, for, according to some sources, the boy is actually to be coming out of the serpent, a possibility that Hammer-Purgstall also suggests. Julia Kaziewicz writes in Study and Teaching Guide for the History of the Renaissance World that there is a version of the biscione that shows the creature “giving birth” to the boy, though I am not sure if she means that it is doing so orally, or otherwise.The biscione story was referenced by Italian poet Torquato Tasso in his 1581 book Jerusalem Delivered, which Hammer-Purgstall quotes in his footnotes commenting on this symbol. Strangely, Tasso seems to describe the Saracen’s shield as being decorated with a “naked boy coming out of the serpent.” There doesn’t seem to be any doubt that it was always a little boy, not a grown man.” As for the eleven possible translations of the Italian word esce, all indicate “coming out of” except one, “sticking up,” which is ambiguous in this instance.

If he is actually coming out of the biscione, this would explain the look of surprise, but not always anguish, that is sometimes seen on the face of the boy victim. Significantly, the word “anguish” shares the same root found in many words associated with snakes in several different languages, including the words that Torquato Taso used for the biscione: Angue. The syllable Ang, etymologically, has to do with twisting and bending, thus forming “angles.” “Anguish” comes from being twisted up emotionally, and causes physical contortions in the body.”

The house of Anjou, who consider as their ancestor the demonic creature Melusine, are undoubtedly named after her, since creatures like her, with serpents for legs, are called “Anguepedes.” As I have explained in other writings, there is also a connection between this word, due to its connotations involving angles, and the name of the people known as the “Angles,” as well as the language of English that they helped to influence.

Melusine flies away from Fulk the Black’s castle


The Italian pronunciation of “biscione” is specified by writing it with ʃ twice in place of the “sc” (to be pronounced like the “sh” in “ship), or as bissa in Milanese. (I at first thought I was looking at a double “f,” and almost jumped out of my chair thinking that the alternate spelling offered by Wikipedia to aid pronunciation was baffone, and thus almost identical to baffomet.)

Ultimately, “biscione” is said to come from the Latin bestia. But there are obvious connections with the names of other, similar creatures, explored in the paragraph below. To these I would add the unknown root of the word “bitch,” which, according to the Online Etymology Dictionary, comes from the Old English bicce meaning “female dog,” but stems “probably from Old Norse bikkjuna (“female of the dog”), “which is of unknown origin,” and, in that language, also applies to “the fox, wolf, and occasionally other beasts.” The same source also notes something significant to this book’s topics when it mentions that it has been “used among male homosexuals from 1930s,” and that “In modern (1990s, originally African-American vernacular) slang, its use with reference to a man is sexually contemptuous….” But then, what about “vicious,” from the Latin vitiosus and the Medieval Latin vicious, meaning “faulty, full of faults, defective, corrupt; wicked, depraved”?

Another family of related words includes guivre, which is defined as a mythical “dragon-like” animal with poisoned breath. That word connections to the French vouivre, and vipera, and thus to “viper,” then to wyvern, wurm, and thus “worm.”A side branch of this word cluster brings us to “wolf,” coming to us, according to the Online Etymology Dictionary, from:

Wlkwo (‘wolf’ source also of Sanskrit vrkas, Avestan vehrka); Albanian ul’k; Old Church Slavonic vluku; Russian volcica; Lithuanian vilkas (‘wolf’); Old Persian Varkana (‘Hyrcania,’ district southeast of the Caspian Sea, literally ‘wolf-land’); probably also Greek lykos, Latin lupus).

The name of “Hyrcania,” of course, made me think of Hercules, who seems to be all over these etymologically-related myths of fabulous beasts, as we shall see.

Supposedly there were two noble dynasties in Italy named Visconti, separated chronologically and physically by small amounts, and historians say they were unrelated, although I find that hard to believe. The later Viscontis, centered in Sardinia, used a black cock as their insignia. But the earlier Viscontis of Milan ended up fusing with the House of Sforza and adding another type of black bird to their arms, which they call an “eagle.”

Arms of the House of Sforza

But considering that the Gnostic anguipede symbol of Abraxas involves a creature with the head of a cock and two serpents for legs, I can’t help but wonder if the second house of Visconti is indeed related, but just chose a nicer way of depicting their mascot. Other creatures, like the cockatrice and the basilisk (whose name means “little king”), also combine the features of snakes and roosters, are also known for eating children, and are decidedly demonic in association. Interestingly, the Sforzas started out in the service of the Angevins, descendants of the anguipede Melusine, who herself was said to have such features because she had been fathered by the Devil himself.

Hammer-Purgstall describes the image on Tab. V, fig. 62 as “the Ophitic Mete wearing a towered crown and holding two snakes, just [like] those figures in the bas-reliefs of the church of Pictavien, as well as the many idols in the Imperial-Royal Treasury and the collection of Schoenfeld. It seems hard to believed that he did not recognize this image of the anguipede Melusine (a common European heraldic device featuring a crowned woman with snakes for legs, now morphed into the mermaid on the Starbucks logo), which it clearly is. Perhaps he would have interpreted all images of Melusine as Templar-inspired depictions of Mete. The story of the Melusine (inspired by a supernatural folk tale stating that the wife of Fulk III, Count of Anjou, was a half-demonic creature spawned by Satan), was first heard shortly before or contemporary with the foundation of the Templar order. The house of Anjou was intimately connected with the families of the founding knights.While for the present edition of this book I have not had Hammer-Purgstall’s footnotes to this essay fully translated yet, I have looked at them, and he seems to take the biscione symbol as a Gnostic one, as well as that of St. George slaying the Dragon. As he explains in the main text, the Dragon, in this instance, is the Demiurge. In his favor, the Viscontis were accused by Pope Giovanni XXII (particularly Ottone’s nephew Matteo, who replaced him in leading Milan) of being heretics in league with the Gnostic Cathars, practicing magic, stealing items from the church, and of teaching young women in their domains that casual sex was not a sin.I think this is the same “OTTO” that he mentions when analyzing coins with that name on them found at Templar properties (Tab. V, fig. 93-95), although there are two other candidates for the person that have been suggested by other scholars. Hammer-Purgstall wrote regarding one of these coins that it bears “the inscription [or, perhaps, ‘epigraph’] Ottonis Marchionis.” These last two words are not italicized, and he follows them with the statement that “it only goes to show that he was an initiate Gnostic doctrine or the secrets of the Temple.” Ottone Visconti is, as far as I know, the only one of the three who was an accused Gnostic heretic.Years ago, I wrote in my research notes about Mysterium Baphometis Revelatum that I thought (perhaps at the suggestion of someone else) Hammer-Purgstall was saying the coin depicted Otto de Grandson, a knight from Savoy who at the end of the thirteenth century fought off a Mamluk invasion in Cilicia alongside Jacques de Molay. (For this, he is frequently called “the Savior of the Templars,” and the Chateau de Grandson still stands proudly in the municipality of Grandson in Switzerland.) However, Frederic Münter, who first wrote about these coins, thought (and Michaud concurred) that they actually depict Otto II, Margrave of Brandenberg, who lived from 1147 to 1205. The word written as “Margrave” in English comes from the German Markgraf, made from graf, the German word for “Count,” and mark, translated “march” in English, which is the German word for a borderland.

Oddone of Savoy

Arms of the House of Grandson

Both Münter and Michaud see this implied in what they take to be the word marchio written on Coin 95, right after the word “OTTO.” Thus they see nothing heretical hinted at in this coin. Indeed, when you compare this coin to another one found on Wikipedia that does feature Otto II, the way the head and face are depicted is quite similar, as is the style of execution for both coins in their entirety (though not the design itself).

Tab. V, fig. 93, front and back

 Tab. V, fig. 94

Tab. V, fig. 94-95


Left: Otto II, Margrave of Brandenberg

Right: Tab. V, fig. 31 and 56, Mysterium Baphometis Revelatum

This coin has been labeled by a numismatics website[5] as featuring Heinrich II von Rotteneck, Prince-Bishop of Regensburg (-1277-1296) on the obverse side (left), with his head “between two pillars.” On the reverse side (right),where the image is almost completely obliterated, the samesite says there was once “probably” an image of “Otto III… Duke of Lower Bavaria in 1290 and King of Hungary in 1305.”

One of the things that occurred to me when examining the mystery of the Ottos is that Aleister Crowley may have seen significance in the name “OTTO” when he saw this material while reading Mysterium Baphometis Revelatum, which I know for certain he did. Considering that these are the letters involved in the name of his order, the OTO, he might have seen it as an omen that one of these coins was number 93, a number he held as sacred because of a message he divined from spirits telling him that this number somehow symbolized the zeitgeist of the coming “New Aeon” that his followers proclaim is upon us.

Further research into the names “Otto” and “Ottone” revealed some fascinating connections. I immediately thought of Odin, a.k.a Woden, the one-eyed Norse god considered equivalent to Hermes/Mercury. I also wondered if it was related to the name “Anthony.” Finally, I wondered if it was related to the name “Ottoman,” because the type of armor which the character “Otto Marchionis” on the said coin is depicted wearing reminded me of the way Ottoman knights dressed (even though the timeline, I figured, was off for there to be such influence).

Left: One-Eyed Odin. Right: Tab. I, fig. 5, Mysterium Baphometis Revelatum, allegedly

Mete” Idol. The Dajjal, the Islamic Anti-Christ figure, is also said to have only one eye.




Wotan riding white horse, slaying dragon, just like St. George



Wotan with winged helmet, just like the Greek Hermes

As it turns out, “Othin” is an alternate way of spelling Odin, while “Othone,” “Ottho,” “Odo” and “Odon” are all alternate ways of spelling “Otto” in European languages. This brings to my mind the name of Thoth, the Egyptian equivalent of Hermes/Mercury.

In Latin the root “odo” connects mainly with words having to do with odor or hatred (odium). But “den,” which we find in “Woden/Odin,” but also, in “Eden” (I will explain, in due course, the symbolic connection between these things) yields interesting results in Latin and in many other languages, relating to a “grinder,” a “sickle,” a “tooth,” or, more broadly, anything that is, to quote my Latin dictionary, “sharp, biting or destructive.”

It means all these things in Latin, and has similar meanings in other tongues. This, of course, is where we get “dentist,” “orthodontia,” and the like. In Latin, the share-beam of a plough was called a dentalia. Saturn, who is Chronos and Mithras, was considered by Romans to be not only the patron deity of agriculture, but the actual inventor of the plough. The Latin dictionary even connects dens for “tooth” directly with a reference from Virgil about Saturn’s sickle, dens Saturni.

This is significant for many reasons. For one thing, I think it is reasonable, if one tries to imagine a baby cutting the penis off of his father from inside his mother’s womb (the first use of Saturn’s sickle), that we should consider the idea that the cutting instrument was really his teeth. Saturn was a beast, after all, a dragon, a Titan, connected to the word “Satan,” and he had been kept inside the womb too long, so his teeth might have been quite large.

Also, in the Persian-influenced Mithras cult, the bull is castrated by a scorpion, who then feeds the testicles to the Moon goddess. Luna was considered the genetrix of souls who brings them into human incarnation, and through which they must pass when they exit. In Ophite Gnostic cosmology, the realm directly above the Earth plane is occupied by Behemoth, a bull-headed monster. The next one after that is the Moon. In his The Makers of Civilization, L.A. Waddell connected Odin with “the first Sumerian king Uduin,” and adds:

[T]he Star named after King Uduin is called ‘The Star of the Lord King ME-TI-RA,’ which discloses the Sumerian origin of the Sanskrit title of Mitra and the Persian Mithra for the Sun, which luminary was the sole ‘star’ worshipped by the first king and his Goths in the Eddas. Stills further the Planet Jupiter, named as we have seen after the first Sumer king’s title of Ia or Ja, was called by the later Sumers ‘The planet UDU, the Etil (Lord), the GUT, wherein Gut, here spelt with signs meaning ‘The Bull of the Sun,’ is as we shall see later the ordinary Sumerian form of the word Goti or ‘GOTH.’

This identity is further confirmed by this Sumerian record stating… that ‘Kingship from Heaven was made arise. At Urdu City kingship was … At Urdu City Udu-in the king reigned.’ This is in strict agreement with the Nordic Eddas which state that Thor, also called in different stanzas of that episode Odo, descended from his Himin, i.e. ‘Heaven’ and enthroned himself as king at Urd.

The word “heaven,” which the names “Ouranos” and “Uranus” are most commonly taken to refer to, has, according to the Online Etymology Dictionary, an uncertain origin, but they mention Watkins derives it elaborately from the Proto-Indo-European ak meaning “sharp,” itself coming from akman. This latter word means “stone or sharp stone,” and also “stony vault of heaven,” pertaining to the ancient concept of the arch of the sky being a hard domed firmament. I see in here the obvious lingering influence of the idea that the connection between the sky and the Earth (symbolized as the sky’s penis) has been severed by one of more of the objects in the sky.

Now consider that on Tab. V., fig. 100 of Hammer-Purgstall’s images, we see another coin featuring the name “OTTO,” but this time there is another strange character right after the last “O.” It looks like an X inside of a square. It really makes no sense, and I might take it to be the place where another letter or symbol has been rubbed off over time. But the first time I looked at this image, long before I knew about the etymological connections, I thought that I saw the word “TOOTH” there. See for yourself.

This seems significant, especially when combined with the fact that Otto is shown here holding a lance, with another weapon in the shape phallic fleur-de-lys (more on this symbol later) standing next to him, both standing between two phallic-looking towers, and a hand sticking out from above, poking through the veil of heaven as though through a membrane. In German the word “heaven” is himmin, and its etymology, as I mention elsewhere in this essay, means “stony vault,” while the word “hymen” (the same in German) is supposedly unrelated. (The fleur-de-lys, by the way, was supposedly handed down to the Frankish Merovingian king Clovis from Heaven by his wife Clothilde.)

Tab. V, fig. 100

Hammer-Purgstall himself made note of this extraneous X, and had a most unique interpretation. He wrote:

“Otto” can be read as numeric zeros with two truncated crosses, and also, not incorrectly, understood as phalluses and chalices, or as symbolizing [either χτενός, Greek, “comb,” or κτενός, “shortbread”]. Often, these are found signed at the end of a letter of correspondence, to signify their secret doctrine and arcane principles.

I’m not sure if either of those interpretations of the Greek word written here are correct, but I do note, of course, that a “comb,”—that is, the type that one uses for the hair—has teeth. This may be right on the money, since, as I wrote in my end-notes to the text:

Is he implying that the now-popular custom of signing a letter to a loved one with ‘Xs and Os’—taken now to mean ‘hugs and kisses’—is actually a symbol of Gnostic ‘genital wisdom’? If so, it would be fitting, since another symbol used in this manner, the heart sign, is thought by many to represent the head of a penis.

There is another reason why this is significant. Remember when I mentioned my pondering on the possible connection between “Otto” and “Ottoman”? Well, just keep in mind that the symbols associated with the Ottomans, which also came to be seen as synonymous symbols of Islam, were also used by the Knights Templar, particularly in conjunction with images of the mosque built on the alleged “Temple Mount” in Jerusalem, which they occupied. These symbols are the scimitar and the crescent. I will elaborate more on the significance of this in due time.

When we look at the name “Woden” as it’s commonly-used alternate, “Wotan,” interesting things happen, for then we can connect it to Lotan, a sea-monster in Ugaritic mythology in whom many scholars see the roots of the figure of Leviathan.[6] The latter beast occupies, in Ophite cosmology, the position of Ouranos or Uranus. This is because he is not only the Perfect Man (the Zodiac Man, soon to be discussed below), but also the Ouroboros, the snake biting his own tail or, as I have reconstructed it (using the etymology of the root words), “he who drinks his own urine directly from his penis.” You see, the name Ouranos means “urinater,” although it is often just translated as “rain-maker,” since the deity of that name was the personification of the sky and the rain was considered as his urine. The word being translated here as “tail”(οὐρά) is being used as a euphemism for the male member.

Ouroboros fellating himself

Strangely, in the mystical Jewish cosmology of the Cabala, Behemoth and Leviathan are at once both rivals at war and long-lost lovers pining to unite with each other again. In Baphomet: The Temple Mystery Unveiled, we wrote:

Very similar things are said about Leviathan and her consort as are said about Lilith and Samael. They are clearly just different names for the same figures. In both cases, it is said that they were once together physically, but that God separated them, because the act of their mating was somehow dangerous to the well-being of the universe. So, in both cases, they were cleaved apart, castrating the male, and preventing them from ever uniting sexually again. With both sets of characters, it is written that if they ever come together again, all of existence will somehow be annihilated.

In the case of the leviathans, it is said numerous times in the Bible that at the End of Times, God will slaughter them and feed their flesh to the righteous among men. This will take place at a feast with the messiah in the New Jerusalem, inside of a tent made from the monsters’ skin. This is what the Jewish festival known as the “Feast of the Tabernacles” is meant to celebrate, and it is probably why the early Christians adopted the fish as their symbol.

Because Samael and Lilith (a.k.a Leviathan and Behemoth) are constantly longing for each other, they found a way to mate via an “intermediary” called “Tanin’iver” (“Blind Dragon”) or “the Groomsman.” We read about it in Treatise on the Left Emanation:

You already know that evil Samael and wicked Lilith are like a sexual pair who, by means of an intermediary, receive an evil and wicked emanation from one and emanate to the other. . . . The heavenly serpent is a blind prince, the image of an intermediary between Samael and Lilith. Its name is Tanin’iver. The masters of tradition said that just as this serpent slithers without eyes, so the supernal serpent has the image of a spiritual form without color—these are “the eyes.” The traditionists call it an eyeless creature, therefore its name is Tanin’iver. He is the bond, the accompaniment, and the union between Samael and Lilith. If he were created whole in the fullness of his emanation he would have destroyed the world in an instant.

The name “Tannin,” which contains key syllable “tan,” (interchangeable with “don,” “den/din,” and “dan”), applies another Ugaritic sea-monster who ended up in the Bible. As Wikipedia tells us:

The tanninim (תַּנִּינִים) also appear in the Hebrew Bible’s of Book of Genesis, Exodus, Deuteronomy, Psalms, Job, Ezekiel, Isaiah, and Jeremiah. They are explicitly listed among the creatures created by God on the fifth day of the Genesis creation narrative, translated in the King James Version as ‘great whales.’ The tannin is listed in the apocalypse of Isaiah as among the sea beasts to be slain by Yahweh ‘on that day,’ translated in the King James Version as ‘the dragon.’

Returning to the meaning of “Otto,” “Wotan,” and “Woden,” we find the root syllables both connected to the very concept of water itself. Wed is a Proto-Indo-European root meaning “water” or “wet.” According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, its cousins are the Hittite watar, the Sanskrit udrah, the Greek hydor, the Old Church Slavonic and Russian voda, the Lithuanian vanduo, the Old Prussian wundan, the Gaelic uisge (meaning “water”), the Latin unda (meaning “wave”), the Old English wæter, the Old High German wazzar, and the Gothic wato water.

Regarding wazzar, I wondered if it was connected to “vizier.” While I didn’t find absolute confirmation, I think it’s close enough, as the same source quoted above also says of this word that it is:

…[F]rom Turkish vezir (‘counsellor’), from Arabic wazir (‘viceroy’), literally ‘one who bears (the burden of office),’ literally ‘porter, carrier,’ from wazara (‘he carried’).

Here again we have the concept of the cup-bearer illustrated, and defined not only as the role of a royal catamite, but also, by extension or by comparison, the role of the royal “prime minister” who must take all of the responsibility for the actions of the crown while the king remains regal, aloof and untouchable. All in all, the same source says that the root wed:

It forms all or part of: abound; anhydrous; carbohydrate; clepsydra; dropsy; hydra; hydrangea; hydrant; hydrargyrum; hydrate; hydraulic; hydro-; hydrogen; hydrophobia; hydrous; Hydrus; inundate; inundation; kirsch-wasser; nutria; otter; redound; redundant; surround; undine; undulant; undulate; undulation; vodka; wash; water (n.1); wet; whiskey; winter.

The connection with “otter” is particularly revealing. Again, from the same source:

Otter: Old English otr, otor (‘otter,’) from Proto-Germanic otraz (‘otter’) (source also of Old Norse otr, Swedish utter, Danish odder, Dutch otter, Old High German ottar, German Otter), from PIE udros, literally ‘water-creature’ (source also of Sanskrit udrah, Avestan udra (‘otter’); Greek hydra (‘water-serpent’), enydris (‘otter’); Latin lutra, Old Church Slavonic vydra, Lithuanian udra, Old Irish odoirne (‘otter’), from root wed– (1) (‘water’; ‘wet’). Sea otter attested from 1660s, also known as sea-ape.

This, they say, is the root of hydra, meaning “water-snake.” The connection with the word “vizier” is important for several reasons, some of which I’ve already mentioned. But now consider the biscione and the house of Visconti. The Italian word visconte means “viscount,” and visconti means “the viscounts.” Since the letters “v” and “b” are interchangeable in many languages, I don’t think it’s a stretch at all to consider that the biscione may have been the source of the name of the noble family, and also of the notion of a viscount as a “water-carrier,” despite the fact that the Online Etymology Dictionary traces it to the fourteenth century, and to the Latin word viscomes.

Considering the possible connection between these words and “vicious,” which I mentioned before, I decided to see if there was any connection with “victory,” and that’s where I found the Proto-Indo-European root weik, meaning “to fight, conquer,” which, according to the same source, “forms all or part of: convict; convince; evict; evince; invictus; invincible; Ordovician; province; vanquish; victor; victory; Vincent; vincible.” As a verb, the same root weik means “to bend, to wind,” just like the previously-mentioned ang, another word based on serpentine symbolism. This, according to the same website, “forms all or part of: vetch; vicar; vicarious; vice (‘deputy,’ ‘assistant,’ ‘substitute’); viceregent; vice versa; vicissitude; weak; weakfish; week; wicker; wicket; witch hazel; wych.”

The connection (to be explained a bit later) between this and the name of Nike, the Greek goddess of victory and the tiny palm-sized companion of Metis’ daughter Athena, brings me to Hammer-Purgstall’s comments on the image of a coin featured on Tab. V, fig. 19. He writes:

The chalice on fig. 19 is kept safe by two erect serpents, just as you will see very frequently sculptured on mystic Dionysiac vases. Such snakes are also seen on vases commonly called “Etruscan,” which, it seems, represent and they [are shown accompanying] initiates into the sepulcher.

Tab. V, fig. 19 Professor X, whose main expertise was Latin, also attempted his best at translating several of the Greek words and phrases in the document. But he threw up his hands at the meaning of this word, which he had taken to be κτειδα and transliterated as Kteida (which Google translates as meaning “instances”). I think the word here is something related to κῆτος (kētos, meaning “whale or sea monster,” the source of the English word “cetaceans,” denoting large sea animals. The plural form of this word is κήτη or κήτεα (kētē or kētea). In Latin, these same words were expressed as cetus and cetea, and this is the source of the name of the constellation Cetus, “the whale.” Interestingly, there is another possible translation of the Greek κήτεα—“gardens”—that is highly significant if you consider the idea that the Garden of Eden was actually in the womb of the mother goddess, Gaia.Before I came across this family of Greek words, I had decided that the first character of the Greek word in the original text was intended to be a lower-case lambda (λ), equivalent to an “l,” and thus rendering the word λτειδα: “lydia.”But amazingly, I managed to arrived at the same set of myths and symbols coming from that direction that I would have found if I had already known about Cetus. This is because the defeat of the Lydian Dragon—who is in fact the same figure as Cetus— by Hercules is indeed a feature often depicted on kraters associated with the cult of Dionysus, a god who was thought to have come from Lydia. Snakes can be seen wrapped around all of the initiates of a Dionysian ritual procession on the famous “Lydos krater” on display in the New York Metropolitan Museum.

Hercules vs. the “Trojan Ketos.” refers to the weapon as a “fish-hook.” Note the otter behind the Ketos.

“Lydos” is the name of the maker of the vase, and it is thought to mean “the Lydian.” I began to wonder if the name “Lydia” was related to “Lotan,” as the Lydian dragon was considered the genius of the Sangarius River in Turkey. The story of his defeat by Hercules was thought to have been memorialized in the heavens with the constellation Ophiuchus, the Serpent-Bearer.[7]

Consider, then, the City of London, financial center of the world, which sits on the site of Roman Londinium, and utilizes two dragons, combined with a sword and the shield of St. George, as its official emblem. According to modern scholars, St. George was supposedly from Lydda, or (in Hebrew), Lod (Greek: Διόσπολις), now a town in Israel southeast of Tel Aviv. There is an Islamic hadith stating that this is where the antichrist (called Dajjal) will be killed right before Judgement Day.

The arms of the City of London

However, that same article goes on to state that:

Accounts differ regarding whether George was born in Cappadocia or Syria Palaestina, but agree that he was raised at least partly in Lydda in Palestine. His parents were Christian, of the nobility and of Greek heritage. His father Gerontius was a Roman army official from Cappadocia, and his mother Polychronia was from Lydda in the province of Syria Palaestina.

So strangely, like a child born of two natures, George’s ancestry hailed from two towns in two different countries with names that sounds and are spelled similar, and which are often confused with each other. But some writers have considered George to be from Cappadocia—that is, from Lydia, Anatolia, Phrygia, or Modern Turkey—with the alleged connection to the Palestinian town added later. I don’t really see much evidence against this notion. As it says in Wikipedia regarding George:

A titular church built in Lydda during the reign of Constantine the Great (reigned 306–37) was consecrated to ‘a man of the highest distinction,’ according to the church history of Eusebius; the name of the titulus (‘patron’) was not disclosed, but later he was asserted…to have been George.

By the time of the early Muslim conquests of the mostly Christian and Zoroastrian Middle East, a basilica in Lydda dedicated to Saint George existed. The church was destroyed by Muslims in 1010, but was later rebuilt and dedicated to Saint George by the Crusaders. In 1191 and during the conflict known as the Third Crusade (1189–92), the church was again destroyed by the forces of Saladin, Sultan of the Ayyubid dynasty (reigned 1171–93). A new church was erected in 1872 and is still standing.

One such scholar who thought he was from Cappadocia, and that the history had been misunderstood, was L.A. Waddell. According to him, George is the same as Adam, and King Arthur. (While I haven’t come across it in his book yet, we can safely presume that he thought the name “Turkey” ultimately stemmed from this character.) In The British Edda, Waddell presents texts he’s found and translated describing the figure he identifies as “Thor” having a battle with a “lion” called “Meide-Asa,” whom he connects with Medusa of Greek legends. (Note, again, the syllable med, or “Mete”). Waddell saw the Meide-Asa beast as representative of a tribe there in Cappadocia that had lions as their totem symbol. He writes:

[T]he Lion tribe in Asia Minor [was] flocking to Thor’s standard at Troy from so far afield as Vind in Eastern Phrygia, Aur-Vang, or ‘the Van Lake’ in Uri or Armenia, as far as Lofar in the anti-Taurus in Cilicia on the S.E. border of Cappadocia, also from Brimi’s Land to the north of Carchemish.

The name ‘Phrygia,’ I have shown in my Dictionary is a Sumerian word, from the Sumerian name Firig for Asia Minor, including also ‘the Western Lands’ generally. It means ‘Land of the Lions,’ from Firig or Pirig, ‘a lion,’ literally ‘Frightful, Fierce, or Ferocious,’ and it is the Sumerian source of these and their other derivative English words. The name was written by the picture of a Lion’s head; and the people of that land were called by the Sumerians Firig-su.

Regarding this Thor’s alleged title of George, Waddell writes:

Striking corroborative evidence for the historical authenticity of this Eddic tradition of the victory of Thor, Meide-Asa or Miod-Asa in Ancient Phrygia [exists], as George with his Red Cross is found in the stupendous rock-sculpture standing at the source of the Sangarios River in the heart of Phrygia, at the site of its prehistoric capital with mounds of ruins…. It is ‘the most beautiful of all Phrygian monuments,’ and is popularly called the ‘Tomb of Midas,’ see Fig. 39—although it is admittedly not a tomb. It covers the face of an immense cliff, and whilst its facade is characteristically Gothic, its chief ornament consists of nine enormous St George’s Crosses. These are arranged in the form shown in Fig. 40. Its inscription contains the name ‘Midas’ in letters supposed to be of about the ninth century B.C., but more probably of the twelfth or still earlier.

Interesting confirmation of these nine St George’s Crosses of Thor or Meidi-Asa of the Eddic lay in their victory over the Serpent cult of the Phrygians and Edenites and their identification of him as Midas I of Fig. 4o.—The Nine St. George’s Crosses on the Midas Monument…. Phrygia is found in the painting on an archaic Greek vase of about 500 B.C., see Fig. 41…. The number Nine, moreover, is significantly in Sumerian the mystic number of King Dar or Sagg (i.e., Thor or Sig) as the He-Goat…; and amongst the Greeks the number Nine was also the mystic number of Prometheus…, who, we have found, is identical with Thor as Bur-Mioth (‘Pro-metheus’) otherwise entitled Miot or Miod-Asa (Midas) or St. George of Cappadocia.



















Illustrations from The British Edda by L.A. Waddell. In fig. 41, the 9 crosses together form another symbol, the double-barred Cross of Lorraine



Once again, we have a connection here with Mete/Baphomet when Waddell says that Medusa is “also as Bur-Mioth (‘Pro-metheus’) otherwise entitled Miot.” In addition to connecting with her Gnostic title of Pronoia (‘forethought, providence,’ same meaning as Prometheus), “Bur-Mioth” brings to mind Behemoth, same as the Persian Bahumed, a.k.a. Bafomid, and thus, Baphomet, according to Hammer-Purgstall.

Also, it is hard not to notice the similarity with the stories of the Babylonian story of Marduk and Tiamat, which itself is very similar to my reconstruction of the Greek stories of Ouranos, Gaia and Chronos (built through the implications found in the myths of all three figure). Ouranos and Gaia were originally one hermaphroditic being, locked in perpetual sexual union, and pregnant. Chronos is the one who, in order to release himself from the prison of the womb, which was called Tartarus, had to cut his way out of the beast. In the process he castrated his father, and severed it into its male and female halves. The female fell down and became Earth, while the castrated male stayed up and became the sky.

As they were all three Titans, that means they were dragons, and Chronos, though a dragon himself, is the one famous for defeating the dragon, with the present cosmology we live in resulting from it. That would make him the “son of Heaven,” and could thus be taken as the progenitor of a race called “sons of Heaven,” or “sons of God.” This term is used in the Bible to refer to a race of angels called, in the extra-biblical Book of Enoch, the “Watchers,” or the Grigori, who fathered a race of semi-human giants called Nephilim.

Likewise, Marduk famously severed the beast Tiamat, cut her in half, and used her body to form the universe. Her name not only contains the syllable mat, indicating that she is the same as our Mete, but her name contains the same syllables as Waddell’s “Meide-Asa”—“Dea” and “Meid” if the “d” in that word is taken as interchangeable for “t” and all vowels considered interchangeable for each other: something that is done all the time when interpreting ancient writings.

Also, Waddell’s interpretation of his translated texts as describing St. George killing Medusa makes sense if we take seriously what J.M. Roberts said in A History of Europe, stating that “St. George only acquired his heroic repute as a dragon-killer in the twelfth century (possibly by confusion with the Greek hero, Perseus,” the one known for killing Medusa and for riding a white horse, like St. George. The fact that Perseus put the Gorgon’s head on his shield also reminds me of the story of the alleged hero Ottone Visconti taking the emblem of the biscione from the shield of the Saracen he defeated and putting it on his own. That story too, as I have proven, was projected erroneously back into the twelfth century. It is hard not to think that all of these coincidences somehow add up to something. In the Russian icon below, St. George looks red in skin color, just like the boy being swallowed by the biscione.

St. George of Lydda

However, he is more often depicted with green skin and conflated with the figure of the Green Man. We wrote in Baphomet: The Temple Mystery Unveiled that this character was one:

…[W]hose foliage-sprouting face can be seen in gardens and greenery throughout Europe and the British Isles. Like the ritual phalli of Priapus, these fertility totems were omnipresent there at one time. They show the face of a man grimacing, seemingly almost under torture, as plants sprout from his face, and even from his nose and mouth. In a sense, it is reminiscent of the Gorgon head on the Aegis. He is frequently shown horned, and seems somewhat similar to the bearded faces of Bacchus or Dionysus that most of us have seen at one time decorating a garden gate. These Green Man masks are purported to ensure favorable circumstances to the crops nearby when given proper homage, just like the herms mentioned previously. The oldest known version has been found in France dated to 400 AD.

This “Green Man” is probably connected to several others in Celtic folklore. Most notably, the story of the “Green Man of Knowledge” is quite interesting. In this story, the title character, whose face is described as similar to that of the Green Man totem mask mentioned above, rules over a netherworld called “No Man’s Land,” which like the chaos that Lilith sprang from, doesn’t really exist. He is, as a title implies, as wise man, but he uses his wisdom for ill, to keep the land enchanted under his spell, and rules as a tyrant.

St. George defeating a cockatrice

Both St. George and the Green Man are connected by scholars, and by tradition, with the Islamic figure “Al-Khadir,” of whom we wrote in Baphomet: The Temple Mystery Unveiled that:

His name… is usually taken to be a misspelling of al-akhdar, and he is known for wearing green clothing. Like Hermes, he is a psychopompus. He shows up suddenly when worthy people need guidance, and imparts wisdom (usually strange wisdom against common logic). He will steer you into unforeseen luck, or away from danger, as he wishes. He is known to appear to pilgrims on the Hajj pilgrimage in Mecca, where he “gives power” to the holy Black Stone on display in the shrine called the Kaaba. Like Mercury, he can appear and disappear quite suddenly because his movements are very quick. He is said to look like a young man, but with a white beard. He features in many stories having to do with the Fountain of Youth and immortality. He lives at the junction of two rivers.

Various images of Al-Khadir riding a fish

Al-Khadir is mentioned in The Koran as the “Servant of God” whom the deity granted divine wisdom to. Al-Khadir then met Moses at the crossing of two rivers, and taught him what he knew. He is also associated with the Prophet Elijah. According to a hadith, the spirit of Mohammed spends the month of Ramadan every year in Jerusalem with those of Al-Khadir and Elijah. Sufis also believe that Al-Khadir is the ruler of the rijalu’l-gyab (“the men of the unseen”), a panel of saints and angels who actually make some of the more important decisions regarding the fate of the universe and the things in it. This makes him part of the “Qutb,” the spiritual pole of the universe that holds everything up properly, and around which everything rotates.

The Green Man at Rosslyn Chapel in Scotland,

built by descendants of exiled TemplarsBut according to Wikipedia, George himself is an Islamic figure as well:Saint George is described as a prophetic figure in Islamic sources. George is venerated by Jews, Christians and Muslims because of his composite personality combining several Biblical, Quranic and other ancient mythical heroes. In some of he is identified with Elijah or Mar Elis, George or Mar Jirjus and in others as al-Khidr. The last epithet meaning the ‘green prophet,’ is common to both Christian and Muslim folk piety. Samuel Curtiss who visited an artificial cave dedicated to him where he is identified with Elijah, reports that childless Muslim women used to visit the shrine to pray for children. Per tradition, he was brought to his place of martyrdom in chains, thus priests of Church of St. George chain the sick especially the mentally ill to a chain for overnight or longer for healing. This is sought after by both Muslims and Christians.The same article quotes from Elizabeth Anne Finn’s Home in the Holy land (1866):St. George killed the dragon in this country; and the place is shown close to Beyroot. Many churches and convents are named after him. The church at Lydda is dedicated to St. George; so is a convent near Bethlehem, and another small one just opposite the Jaffa gate, and others beside. The Arabs believe that St. George can restore mad people to their senses, and to say a person has been sent to St. George’s is equivalent to saying he has been sent to a madhouse.The article cites J. E. Hanauer’s 1907 book Folklore of the Holy Land: Muslim, Christian and Jewish to say that Christians saw this same shrine as the tomb of George, and Jews saw it as the tomb of Elijah. Furthermore, the same article quotes G.A. Smith’s Historic Geography of the Holy Land thusly:The Mahommedans who usually identify St. George with the prophet Elijah, at Lydda confound his legend with one about Christ himself. Their name for Antichrist is Dajjal, and they have a tradition that Jesus will slay Antichrist by the gate of Lydda. The notion sprang from an ancient bas-relief of George and the Dragon on the Lydda church. But Dajjal may be derived, by a very common confusion between n and l, from Dagon, whose name two neighbouring villages bear to this day, while one of the gates of Lydda used to be called the Gate of Dagon.Dagon, mentioned in the bible as the name of a Canaanite demon or “false god,” took the form of a half-man/half-fish just like Oannes. Thus he connects to Jonah/Jonas. Interestingly, around the same time in 2014 the terrorist group ISIS destroyed both an alleged tomb of St. George along with the supposed tombs of Jonah and Seth, both located in Mosul, Iraq.


While comparing a prophet to a sea-monster may seem absurd, when it comes to Oannes, it is important to take seriously how he is remembered as a teacher.

An account from third century BC Babylonian writer Berossus regarding Oannes (who actually purported to quote the writings of this “Oannes” himself) was paraphrased first century BC Greek scholar Alexander Polyhistor, as quoted by Cory’s Ancient Fragments from 1876:

At Babylon there was (in these times) a great resort of people of various nations, who inhabited Chaldea, and lived in a lawless manner like the beasts of the field.

In the first year there appeared, from that part of the Erythaean sea which borders upon Babylonia, an animal endowed with reason, by name Oannes, whose whole body (according to the account of Apollodorus) was that of a fish; that under the fish’s head he had another head, with feet also below similar to those of a man, subjoined to the fish’s tail. His voice, too, and language were articulate and human; and a representation of him is preserved even to this day.

This being was accustomed to pass the day among men, but took no food at that season; and he gave them an insight into letters and sciences, and arts of every kind. He taught them to construct cities, to found temples, to compile laws, and explained to them the principles of geometrical knowledge. He made them distinguish the seeds of the earth, and showed them how to collect the fruits; in short, he instructed them in every thing which could tend to soften manners and humanize their lives. From that time, nothing material has been added by way of improvement to his instructions. And when the sun had set this being Oannes retired again into the sea, and passed the night in the deep, for he was amphibious. . . .Dagon and Oannes are literally considered the same figure by scholars, and images of them are frequently labeled as one or the other interchangeably. But some are indistinguishable from images of Jonah, and I wouldn’t doubt at all if some images of these characters have been incorrectly labeled by historians at variance from the creators’ original intentions.

In my book The Merovingian Mythos, I speculated that the name of Iraq, thought by many scholars to come from the city of Uruk, called “Erech” in the Bible, might have been the world’s first city, mentioned in Genesis, that Cain allegedly built. It was the first of six, each named after one of his sons. (The connection between this and Gnostic creation stories, in which the Demiurge generates six sons occupying “aeons” or layers of the heavens, will become obvious to you as our study progresses.)

Ophite diagram of the cosmos

I also pondered the possibility that this figure was also connected to Poseidon Erechtheus, a king of Athens who was also thought to be synonymous with the famous sea-god. The earliest texts also make no distinction between him and Ericthonius, later listed as his grandson. He was said to have been born from the womb of Gaia (Tartarus), who was impregnated when Athena wiped the semen of Hephaestus from her thigh with a piece of wool and then cast it to Earth. When he was born, Athena placed the baby in a box to keep his presence secret. In the later stories, where Erichthonios is distinct from King Erechtheus, it is said that the box was given to the king’s three daughters, one of whom was named “Pandrosus.” They were told to never open it, but eventually their curiosity got the best of them. Finding inside a baby whose lower body was that of a snake, they are said to have gone made and jumped from the Acropolis to their deaths. The creature later succeeded Erechtheus as king. Another king of Athens, Cercrops I, was said to have similar anguipede features. He purportedly taught the people of Athens the techniques of navigation.

Left: Cecrops I. Right: Erichthonius.

Returning to the subject of Enoch, I have mentioned elsewhere in this essay that I consider the biblical Seth to be an alternate identity of Cain, or perhaps literally a rebirthing of him (which you will understand as you read further). He too had a son named Enoch, and it was he who supposedly stands in the line of the biblical patriarchs, ancestor to their kings and priests, and thus supposedly an ancestor of Jesus Christ. He was the grandfather of Noah, and in The Book of Enoch, he purportedly warned Noah of what was coming after learning about it during a miraculous trip to Heaven that mirrors precisely that of his counterpart Hermes. This is hinted at in Genesis 5:21-24, where it says:And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begat Methuselah: And Enoch walked with God after he begat Methuselah three hundred years, and begat sons and daughters: And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years: And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him.This is always taken by modern Christians and Jews to mean that he was translated to Heaven directly, and never died, just as the rapture is said to be. What, then, if he was taken into this City of Enoch, somehow? Could that possibly be the same as the cubic city of New Jerusalem that the righteous saved go to live at the End of Days according to the Revelation of St. John, including, presumably, those who are raptured like Enoch beforehand?It was said that Enoch lived 365 years and wrote 366 books. Hermes, according to ancient writer Manetho, wrote 365,000. The Gnostic Basilides said that there were 365 heavens, with the highest god occupying that upper layer. The name of Abraxas, in Greek, when interpreted numerically, adds up to 365 as well, as does Mithras.  Amazingly, Wikipedia tells us that in the country of Georgia, there are:Exactly 365 Orthodox churches… named after Saint George according to the number of days in a year. According to myth, Saint George was cut into 365 pieces after he fell in battle and every single piece was spread throughout the entire country.

Considering all of the evidence linking St. George to Lydia/Cappadocia/Phrygia, I would now like to submit for consideration some of the amazing coincidences I found between the European royal house of Ascania, from whence the previously mentioned Ottos called Margraves of Brandenberg, purportedly featured on the “OTTO” coins presented by Hammer-Purgstall. The name of the royal house was named, as Wikipedia puts it, after “Ascania (or Ascaria) Castle, known as Schloss Askanten in German,” which was itself located in and named after Aschersleben, now in Germany. It was founded in 1036 by a man named Esiko, grandson of Odo I, Margrave of the Saxon Ostmark. Odo was married to Hidda, sister of Gero, margrave of Geronis.

No link whatsoever is mentioned in the Wikipedia article, nor overtly in anything else I’ve found, to the region now occupied by Turkey. However, you will see that it is impossible for there not to be a link.

Tab. V, fig. 13-18. This “vase,” as Hammer-Purgstall calls it, appears to me to be the royal arms of the House of Ascania (see below)

As in turns out, there is a lake in Turkey that is incredibly historically significant, the name of which was always written in European languages just the same as that of this royal House of Ascania. Its name is said to be derived from the Assyrian Askuza, a name associated with the ancient people called the Scythians. On modern maps of Turkey, the lake is labeled “Isnik,” and the famous town located next to it is known to us as Nicea, where several ecumenical councils were held to decide on the tenets of Christian theology, and where the Byzantine Orthodox “Greek Empire” was based during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was occupied.[8] The name Iznik may even be connected with the victory goddess Nike, as well as Enoch, for, as one source wrote:

Nikaia (or Nicae) is located in the Turkish province of Bursa, on the southeastern edge of Lake Isknok (ancient Lake Ascania).

Apparently, this place may be the very source of the Phrygian race, for as we read in Paul and the Nations: The Old Testament and Jewish Background of Paul’s Mission to the Nations :

The earliest settlement of the Phrygians may be the Mygdones, the tribe of the eponymous Phrygian hero Mygdon, who traditionally lived around Lake Ascania, by Nicea.

Then in an essay found online called “From Macedonia to Anatolia: Some comments on the Phrygians and their migration,” by Manolis Manoledakis, the author writes:

The first mention of the Phrygians in Anatolia occurs in the Iliad, where they are described as coming from remote Ascania’ (mod. Isnik Golu) and the banks of the river Sangarius….

That’s the same River Sangarius associated with the Hydra or Cetus killed by Hercules. But moreover, it seemed impossible for this to be a coincidence when I discovered that the lance that Saint George used to kill the dragon, according to medieval romances, was named “Ascalon,” allegedly, according to Wikipedia, “after the Levantine city of Ashkelon, today in Israel.” Whatever the real source, it occurred to me that the name of King Arthur’s sword Excalibur is related as well.

I started to wonder if the Ashkenazai Jews, of whom so many conspiracy theories were written, might be from this area too, or somehow have a common provenance with both the royal house of Ascania in Germany and the Phrygian people of the Lake Iznik area in Turkey. I found nothing to preclude that, but no outright confirmation.

Wikipedia defines the Ashkenazai as:

…[A] Jewish diaspora population who coalesced as a distinct community in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.The traditional diaspora language of Ashkenazi Jews is Yiddish (a Germanic language which incorporates several dialects), with Hebrew used only as a sacred language until relatively recently. Throughout their time in Europe, Ashkenazim have made many important contributions to philosophy, scholarship, literature, art, music and science.Ashkenazim originate from the Jews who settled along the Rhine River, in Western Germany and Northern France. There they became a distinct diaspora community with a unique way of life that adapted traditions from Babylon, The Land of Israel, and the Western Mediterranean to their new environment.

The Ashkenazi religious rite developed in cities such as Mainz, Worms, and Troyes. The eminent French Rishon Rabbi Shlomo Itzhaki (Rashi) would have a significant impact on the Jewish religion.As to where the Ashkenazai name came from, the same article states:The name Ashkenazi derives from the biblical figure of Ashkenaz, the first son of Gomer, son of Japhet, son of Noah, and a Japhetic patriarch in the Table of Nations (Genesis 10). The name of Gomer has often been linked to the ethnonym Cimmerians. Biblical Ashkenaz is usually derived from Assyrian Aškūza (cuneiform Aškuzai/Iškuzai), a people who expelled the Cimmerians from the Armenian area of the Upper Euphrates, whose name is usually associated with the name of the Scythians.


Here we are presented with the Scythians again. A scythe, of course, is an object synonymous with a sickle, the weapon of Chronos, but perhaps that’s just a coincidence.

The article continues:In Jeremiah 51:27, Ashkenaz figures as one of three kingdoms in the far north, the others being Minni and Ararat, perhaps corresponding to Urartu, called on by God to resist Babylon.In the Yoma tractate of the Babylonian Talmud the name Gomer is rendered as Germania, which elsewhere in rabbinical literature was identified with Germanikia in northwestern Syria, but later became associated with Germania. Ashkenaz is linked to Scandza/Scanzia, viewed as the cradle of Germanic tribes, as early as a 6th-century gloss to the Historia Ecclesiastica of Eusebius. In the 10th-century History of Armenia of Yovhannes Drasxanakertc’i (1.15)

Ashkenaz was associated with Armenia, as it was occasionally in Jewish usage, where its denotation extended at times to Adiabene, Khazaria, Crimea and areas to the east. His contemporary Saadia Gaon identified Ashkenaz with the Saquliba or Slavic territories, and such usage covered also the lands of tribes neighboring the Slavs, and Eastern and Central Europe. In modern times, Samuel Krauss identified the Biblical Ashkenaz’ with Khazaria.Sometime in the early medieval period, the Jews of central and eastern Europe came to be called by this term. Conforming to the custom of designating areas of Jewish settlement with biblical names, Spain was denominated Sefarad (Obadiah 20), France was called Tsarefat (1 Kings 17:9), and Bohemia was called the Land of Canaan. By the high medieval period, Talmudic commentators like Rashi began to use Ashkenaz/Eretz Ashkenaz to designate Germany, earlier known as Loter, where, especially in the Rhineland communities of Speyer, Worms and Mainz, the most important Jewish communities arose. Rashi uses leshon Ashkenaz (Ashkenazi language) to describe German speech, and Byzantium and Syrian Jewish letters referred to the Crusaders as Ashkenazim. Given the close links between the Jewish communities of France and Germany following the Carolingian unification, the term Ashkenazi came to refer to both the Jews of medieval Germany and France.

“Loter” sounds related to Lydia, and Mount Ararat is commonly identified as a mountain in the Lake Van region of Turkey. Flavius Josephus thought that the name Lydia came from Lud, the son of Shem, the later of whom is the namesake of the racial group “Semites,” containing both Jews and Arabs. According to Wikipedia, “The whole west of Asia Minor had Jewish colonies very early, and Christianity was also soon present there.”One of the key take-aways here is that these Ottos from the House of Ascania seem to be related to these tribes from Turkey, who themselves seem to stem from the earliest characters in The Book of Genesis, including the giant Gog-Magog. I would also assume that there is a relationship between the House of Ascania and the numerous Ottos from the House of Habsburg who occupied the throne of the Holy Roman Emperor throughout the Middle Ages. So it is natural to wonder if there is also a relationship between the European Ottos and the royal dynasty that took over Turkey and, from there, formed an empire that threatened the autonomy of Europe: the Ottomans.Indeed, the Ottomans were named after their founder Osman, an Oghuz Turkish tribal leader. Osman is a Turkish form of the Arabic “Uthman,” the source of the Arabic “Osamah,” and even the European “Osmond.” Uthman, it seems to me, may also be related to “Uberto,” a name found frequently among the House of Visconti, and to “Uther,” a.k.a. “Arthur,” both meaning “bear.” The bear is the totem animal of the House of Ascania, with several of their scions boasting the title “the Bear” as part of their names.

Coins featuring Albert I, “the Bear,” Margrave of Brandenberg, circa 1100

This, I am sure, would all make sense if we could put it in the context of the work of Anatoly Fomenko. This Russian mathematician, working with a team of experts with the same background, has created a ground-breaking series of books titled History: Fiction or Science? In it, they theorize that the chronology of history is greatly flawed. He says that most of what we think of as “ancient” history is fake. Basically, he claims that the stories that we have from the ancient world are really just garbled versions of things that happened in medieval Europe.

But more than that: he also says that the “Dark Ages” never happened, and that this explains why so many of the alleged literary works from the ancient world can be found now only in the form of translations that were made in the Renaissance, with the originals lost. He says that there was never such a long stretch of time in which the great cities of Rome and Athens collapsed into ruin, men forgot the basics of science, and everybody lost interest in art and literature. This, he says, is a fabrication meant to cover up the erroneous nature of ancient history, itself a result of mistakes made by a handful of people (central among them sixteenth century theologian and chronologist Joseph Scaliger), which were then covered up deliberately by academics with a vested interest in keeping this flawed understanding of chronology as the accepted version. Among his more radical claims, Fomenko says that Jesus was actually born in what we think of as the twelfth century.

Actually, says Fomenko, tons of these stories are about things that actually happened to the Ottomans, and that hundreds of Ottoman buildings were destroyed to make room for fake “ancient” ruins, when in face, he claims, the Ottoman buildings were the originals. What if, for example, what’s being called the Temple of Solomon is actually an Ottoman structure? Looking at the way “Otto Marchionis” is dressed on the coins presented by Hammer-Purgstall, and at his weapons, and at the turrets on the castles represented on these coins, which Hammer-Purgstall takes to be the Temple of Solomon, I must admit that it all does look quite Ottoman to me. Even the hooded people on the coins that Hammer-Purgstall takes to be female and representations of Mete look, to me, identical to the way in which some Ottoman kings dressed.

Coat of arms of antipope Benedict XIII

Templar seals: Left: Star and crescent. Right: Mosque on Temple Mount


Fomenko is not the first to theorize that the Dark Ages never happened. In 1986, the German Heribert Illig wrote about what is called the “Phantom Time Hypothesis,” evidence of which, he claimed, could be found when looking at the Gregorian calendar reform. Immanuel Velikovsky had suggested something similar in 1952’s Ages in Chaos. When we open yourself up to the possibility of rearranging the chronology of history, it then becomes possible to build an entirely Christ-centric view of history. This is what one of Fomenko’s predecessors and influencers, Nikolai Alexandrovich Morozov, another mathematician, did before him when he wrote the potentially revolutionary but little-known book Christ.

Many have noted the similarity between the figure of Jesus and other gods of the ancient world, such as Dionysus, Osiris, Tammuz, Mithras and Krishna. Often this is cited as evidence of the fraudulent nature of the Church, accused of ‘stealing’ the biographies of pagan gods. But in Fomenko’s world-view, it’s the other way around: all these other gods just represent Jesus, and they probably came about at around the same time. He writes:

If we step aside from Scaligerian chronology, we shall see that all of these parallels indicate the simultaneity of these cults, whose differences are merely a consequence of the ethnic distinctives of their localization. All of them probably hail back to the same common source—that is, they are a reflection of the life and deeds of Jesus Christ in the XII century A.D.While it would be impossible and inappropriate to, in the present volume, explain Fomenko’s entire world-view, or to examine everything presented by Hammer-Purgstall from this perspective, I mention it as something to keep in mind. Correlation does not equal causality, so I would submit that Fomenko’s view is useful for breaking down the mental barrier of accepted chronology, since in my 25 years of examining both history and mythology deeply, I have often found myself spinning in circles created by the numerous counter-claims of historians, and forced to question the assumptions of historians made on the basis of previously assumed facts that I can see with my own eyes are not true.

All this leaves us with is the humbling reality that the things we’ve been taught are things that nobody really knows for sure. Often, the best I can do as a researcher is to point out correlations and say “these things must be related somehow.” While I may, for practical purposes, explain that one thing came from another, I must admit that it can be impossible to tell sometimes what gave birth to what. I mean this in every conceivable sense. When the Online Etymology Dictionary says that the word “hymen” is somehow unrelated to the identical name of the Greek god of marriage, using the sneering term “folk etymology” to denote the popular assumption of things seemingly obvious, I remember Fomenko’s theories, and tell myself not to get too hung up about it.This brave Russian mathematician faced the scorn of the academic community to claim that the Crusades happened directly after Christ’s death, or perhaps even began during his lifetime. He said that the stories of the Trojan War and the Quest for the Golden Fleece were, like the Grail romances, merely allegories for the Crusades.

While I haven’t read this in his work yet, I would assume that Jason, the hero who piloted the ship Argo in the Golden Fleece adventure, and the purported founder of the city of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, is taken by Fomenko as another version of Jesus. In my view, Jason and Zeus are both recapitulations of Jesus, who in the Gnostic Christian world-view is an agent from beyond the created world sent to free those trapped in the prison of the Demiurge, as I mentioned previously. Zeus also shares aspects with Jehovah as presented from the Jewish perspective, but this becomes reconcilable if we allow a Trinitarian sort of solution. The idea of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit (Sophia, the Mother and Bride) all being a little bit separate, but also a little bit inside of each other, is really, quite frighteningly, the exact sort of beast we are dealing with here. (I will add more on this topic later on in this essay.)

There are many hints of this in Jason’s story. Jason’s father is Aeson, just another version of the same name. His partner in crime and first wife is Medea, a crafty witch, just like the relationship of Zeus to Metis (Hammer-Purgstall’s Mete), also described as a crafty witch. Among her tricks, she artificially extended Aeson’s life by draining some of his blood, infusing it with invigorating herbs, and pumping it back into him. She also claimed she could to turn another old man, Pelias, into a baby by chopping him up and boiling him in a cauldron with these herbs, after successfully turning a full-grown ram into a lamb using this process. But sneakily, she didn’t put the herbs in, and let the man die, resulting in her and Jason being driven into exile.The Fleece sought by Jason was a royal totem, consisting of the head, skin and wool of a magically golden ram mounted on a stick.

This brings to mind both the figure of the crucifix, and the Aegis of Zeus, his magical buckler, or shield, made from the skin of the goat Amalthea who raised him in exile, and whom he subsequently slew to make use of her body parts. This story, in turn, hints at the universe being formed from the body of Tiamat after it was cut up by Marduk, or from the beast that Chronos separated into Ouranos and Gaia. Of course, the goat/ram imagery also brings to mind the Templar Baphomet.Jason’s quest took him to Colchis, in modern Georgia. St. George is the patron saint of Georgia. Now you might think that Georgia was named after George, but according to academia, you’re just showing your peasant ignorance there, even though they don’t actually seem to know where the name came from. As Wikipedia puts it:

The country of Georgia, where devotions to the saint date back to the fourth century, is not technically named after the saint, but is a well-attested back-formation of the Greek name. However, a large number of towns and cities around the world are. Saint George is one of the patron Saints of Georgia; the name Georgia (Sakartvelo in Georgian) is an anglicisation of Gurj, ultimately derived from the Persian word gurj/gurjān (‘wolf’). Chronicles describing the land as Georgie or Georgia in French and English, date from the early Middle Ages, as written by the travellers John Mandeville and Jacques de Vitry ‘because of their special reverence for Saint George,’ but these accounts have been seen as folk etymology and are rejected by the scholarly community.

To take the Fleece from Colchis, Jason and Medea had to defeat a dragon, which they did by putting it to sleep with tricks. Before that, they had to defeat an army of sparoi (“Spartans,”) a word seemingly connected to Sfard (Sparda in Old Persian), which is the name that the “Lydians” referred to themselves with. These Spartans, like the other race of Spartans created by the hero Cadmus, sprang from the ground after Jason, forced under duress, sewed a ploughed field with the teeth of a dragon. Here again we have a hint about Chronos using his teeth to break himself out of the womb of Gaia, the Earth.Considering that Anatoly Fomenko sees both Jason’s quest and the Trojan War to be retellings of the Crusades, and that Troy was part of the same land called Lydia, I thought it was significant that there is a story of Hercules rescuing a Trojan princess named Hesione from a horned water-dragon. She had been chained to rocks by her father, King Laomedon, in an attempt to appease the monster, which had been sent by Poseidon to destroy the city. Hercules ended up being swallowed by the dragon, and then, as the Wikipedia article on Hesione puts it, he “he hacked at its innards for three days before it died,” eventually emerging from it just like Jonah from the whale.



Strangely medieval-looking Hercules rescuing Hesione

Another rendering of the same incident

Amazingly, about five minutes after I first began pondering the similarities of Jason and Jesus, a book that I rarely look at, Joseph Campbell’s The Hero with 1000 Faces, literally leapt out of the bookshelf next to me. When I picked it up, it fell open to an illustration that shocked me, with the following mind-blowing caption:[This] view of the Return of Jason (from a vase in the Vatican Etruscan Collection) illustrates a reading of the legend not represented in any literary document.

Douris Cup from Vatican collection, featuring Jason

This is from an Etruscan krater called the “Douris Cup,” currently held by the Vatican. The woman standing over Jason, watching him either get swallowed by, or return from, the mouth of the dragon, is clearly Athena, with a warrior’s helmet, clutching her pet, the Owl of Minerva, and sporting her own trademark Aegis—said by some to be the same as that of Zeus—which is always shown augmented with the head of the Gorgon killed by Perseus. (This token was used by her to avert and reflect the Evil Eye of her enemies). Note that this is an Etruscan vase, just like those mentioned by Hammer-Purgstall, where he also mentioned the word “Lydia.” Wikipedia tells us:An Etruscan/Lydian association has long been a subject of conjecture. The Greek historian Herodotus stated that the Etruscans came from Lydia, repeated in Virgil’s epic poem the Aeneid, and Etruscan-like language was found on the Lemnos stele from the Aegean Sea island of Lemnos. However, the decipherment of Lydian and its classification as an Anatolian language mean that Etruscan and Lydian were not even part of the same language family. Nevertheless, a recent genetic study of likely Etruscan descendants in Tuscany found strong similarities with individuals in western Anatolia, indicating that Etruscans may have lived in or near the region at one time.I cannot say for sure whether Jason—whose name is an anagram of Jonas—is coming or going from the belly of the beast in this instance. Neither did Joseph Campbell, from what I read, but the image in his book is still labeled “The Return of Jason.”

There are, of course, essentially identical images of Jonah/Jonas in the mouth of the whale, as I have shown. But it seems to me that Athena is here playing the role of Medea (who, like I said, seems to be a reimaging of Athena’s mother Metis. She’s immersing Jason in her “cauldron,” the gullet of the beast, from which, with her magical techniques, she can regenerate the human body. This seems just like the Cauldron of Rebirth (called the Pair Dadeni) of Welsh mythology, supposedly discovered by “the Irish king Matholwch,” is whose name we now know to see Metis, or Mete. Examining this myth, when I saw the word Dadeni, I immediately thought of Dagon (another name for Oannes, as I mentioned). How appropriate, then, that the Cauldron’s myth also contains a copy of the story of Samson, who, in the biblical Book of Judges, sacrificed himself by pulling down the pillars of the Temple of Dagon in which he was imprisoned. Likewise, the Pair Dadeni was destroyed from within by a man named Efnisien, who willingly died in the process.Among Hammer-Purgstall’s images, there is a picture of someone either pulling down pillars, or attempting to holding them up.

Tab. III, fig. 9

This brings us to a fascinating and utterly perfect nexus of symbolism and etymology, for in the midst of the constellation of the serpent Hydra, the Cetus, defeated by Hercules, is the constellation “Krater,” representing none other than the Greek vessel for serving wine, exactly the imagery of a snake-entwined vase found on Tab. V, fig. 19.According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word “krater” may be part of the influence behind the word “Grail,” a term that originated in the mystical romances of the Holy Grail, where it was written in French as Sangreal, or in German as Sangraal. The syllable san is usually interpreted to mean “Holy.” As I mentioned in my book The Merovingian Mythos and the Mystery of Rennes-le-Chateau, the syllable gar meant “vessel” in many ancient languages. Astoundingly, in the very next paragraph after discussing the coin with the serpents guarding the vase, Hammer-Purgstall turns his attention to a coin engraved with the word “GRAL” written in code.

Relevantly, the royal family being referenced in the title of that book, called by some the “Grail family,” Meroveus was, according to the legend, the spawn of two fathers: one, the Frankish King Clodio, the other, a mysterious sea creature called “the Quinotaur.” This beast raped his mother, already pregnant, as she was swimming in the ocean, and managed to magically inject his own seed into the developing fetus, co-mingling his own inhuman blood with that of the Frankish kings. This is why Meroveus’ name bore within it the French word for “sea”, and why his descendants, the Merovingian kings, were believed to possess magical, super-human powers. As Holy Blood, Holy Grail by Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh and Henry Lindon states:

According to tradition Merovingian monarchs were occult adepts, initiates in arcane sciences, practitioners in esoteric arts – worthy rivals of Merlin, their fabulous near-contemporary. They were often called the sorcerer kings or thaumaturge kings. By virtue of some miraculous property in their blood, they could allegedly heal by the laying on of hands; and according to one account the tassels on the fringes of their robes were deemed to possess miraculous curative powers. They were said to be capable of clairvoyant or telepathic communication with beasts and with the natural world around them, and to wear powerful magical necklaces. They were said to possess an arcane spell that protected them and granted them phenomenal longevity—which history, incidentally, does not seem to confirm.

In the New Jerusalem, according to The Book of Revelation, there will be a Fountain of Life coming from the body of Jesus, which the righteous will drink from, thus gaining eternal life. In Christian iconography, we often see this represented by the Lamb of God standing on the altar near God’s throne, bleeding into a cup—the Holy Grail. This cup is often shown pouring from beneath the cup into the Rivers of Life, also mentioned in Revelation, that seem to run like a sewer system throughout the whole city, looking just like how the four Rivers of Paradise are shown flowing through the Garden of Eden in Christian religious imagery. I mean “sewer system” literally, for, when not shown coming as blood from the neck of the Lamb, the Rivers are sometimes shown coming from beneath the throne of the Lord. In color version of these pictures, the rivers are sometimes shown as brown, and running through pipes.

The Fountain of Life, from the Ghent Altarpiece

Fountain and rivers depicted as sewer system


An alternate depiction of the Fountain of Life: revelers bathe in Christ’s blood


According to Hammer Purgstall, one of his idols, Tab. I, fig. 13, sports an inscription that reads των υδατων χρυσος [ton ydaton chrysos], which he interprets as meaning “golden waters.” He adds: “What is to be understood by this golden water, or by this golden liquid, is reserved for discussion further on.” It obtained this quality because of the food and drink—nectar and ambrosia—eaten by the gods, which, in a previous book of mine (Clock Shavings), I argued was most likely the flesh and blood of those sacrificed to them.

I think it is noteworthy that the gods of Greece were said to have blood which was golden in color, called ichor, the possession of which was considered the cause of their immortality. When drained of it, they died. But in medical pathology, the same term, according to, means “an acrid, watery discharge, as from an ulcer or wound.” Regarding this, Church Father Clement of Alexandria wrote that “the ichor of the poets is more repulsive than blood; for the putrefaction of blood is called ichor.” This makes sense once we realize that the gods of all traditions appear to be literally zombies rotting in the bowels of the Earth, using magical techniques involving the blood and flesh of humans to regenerate themselves.

Tab. I, fig. 13, Mysterium Baphometis

Unfortunately, when dealing with things supposedly ancient and supposedly sacred, we can’t seem to get away from the gore of dead and dismembered bodies, sexual depravity, and the unnatural abuse of bodily functions, along with the resulting byproducts. The Gnostics were accused of heresy for saying these things, and scorned for practicing them, but we seem to find it hidden within every religious tradition, but still hinted at by the myths and imagery in a way that is obvious once you understand the symbols. So what is Jason “returning” from in the picture provided by Joseph Campbell? Does the dragon represent the intestines, as Hammer-Purgstall tells us? Is this what the inscriptions were referring to that say “Return through the rectum is easy”?

[This is an excerpt from “Meet Mete,” my introduction to my recently-published English translation of Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall’s Mysterium Baphometis Revelatum.]

2 thoughts on “The Biscione and the Mystery of the Various Ottos–Sea Monsters, Templars, European Royalty & Scaligerian Chronology”

  1. As for “the beast that Chronos separated into Ouranos and Gaia” – this may be Quinotaur. This mythical creature used to get some popularity in Old Russian apocryphal texts as Коутур (Coutouvre) or Китоврас (Kitowras). In some way, in Old Rus’ it was kind of subsitution for European Melusine. (There are some Russian researchers who consider legendary Rurik, the founder of the 1st Russian royal dynasty – the Rurikovichis – to be a Merovingian from the branch of counts de Rouergues-Limoges.) Some Old Russian aristocratic families got this beast in their coat-of-arms (beast depicted in crown, with king’s sceptre and a chalice in his arms). As it goes in Old Russian apocryphe “Повесть о Еве (Tale of Eve)”, in Paradise Quinotaur was chasing Eve and her son Seth and finally ate (devoured) Seth. Actually, names Seth and Scythes seem rather alike to me. Besides, Scythes is one of three sons of Heracles and Echidna (=Melusine). Interestingly, according to some legends, Perseus’ shield (round in form) is called Skyphos (meaning “chalice”)

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